State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic Slovak Caves Administration
Štátna ochrana prírody

Speleoclimatological research and monitoring

Continuous monitoring of temperature, relative humidity and dew point of air in the Gombasecká Cave (Photo: J. Zelinka)Karst climatology is dealing with the principles of air movement and changes and their influence on karst processes. It studies the physical and chemical processes on the karst surface as well as in caves. The caves represent a special natural environment, which by its morphology and closeness determines the specific microclimatic settings in underground spaces.

Testing of new monitoring device (Photo: J. Zelinka)The climatological research on the karst surface in Slovakia is aimed at monitoring of rainfall as the most important factor of karstification in the temperate climatic zone, of changing the seasonal types of weather, of the vegetation cover and regime of evaporation. An emphasis on microclimatological settings studying is placed in the cave environment. The actual monitoring of basic parameters of cave climate is done by several approaches and limited by financial demands of the modern measuring and datalogging devices. We can distinguish the long-term and short-term monitoring.

Drilling in the Dobšinská Ice Cave for determination of ice thickness, age and geochemical composition (Photo: J. Zelinka)  Annual course of temperature in static and dynamic parts of the Dobšinská Ice CaveThe long-term continuous monitoring is aimed at cognition of the course of dominant components of speleoclimate in separate climatically different parts of caves and cave systems during a long term period (several years). It is realized in caves with exceptionally precious and sensitive aragonite or ice fills, where the global changes in atmosphere as well as anthropogenic factors (change of cave spaces morphology, opening new entrances) can play an important negative role. The research in such caves is broadened by observations of heat transfer between the rock and atmosphere and conduction of heat in the rock or secondary fills (like ice) and their relation with air movement as the medium transporting the thermal energy.

Healing children with respiratory diseases in the Jasovská Cave (Foto: J. Zelinka)The short-term continuous monitoring is realized usually during one climatic year. It is done in caves where the detail data on microclimate are missing or where another use of cave is presumed (curative, religious, tourist etc.). So called micro-regime observations are realized in show caves within the short-term monitoring. Their aim is the detail cognition of microclimate changes in one second intervals as for the time necessary for its regeneration. Such a knowledge serves us to set the limits of carrying capacity without permanent changes and to regulate the number of visitors in a given time interval.

Qualitative attributes of cave climate and speleoaerosol are used in selected caves for curative and healing purposes.

The speleoclimatological research and monitoring in Slovak caves is provided by the Slovak Caves Administration in Liptovský Mikuláš. We cooperate with foreing scientific institutes on research in ice caves on the basis of agreement (mainly the Wroclaw University in Poland).


Demänovská jaskyňa slobody otvorená od 3.10.2023

Oznamujeme návštevníkom, že Demänovská jaskyňa slobody bude po rekonštrukcii elektroinštácie znovu otvorená od 3.10. 2023. Tešíme sa na Vašu návštevu.

Dear visitors, the Demänovská Cave of Liberty will be opened again from 3rd October 2023 after electric installation reconstruction. We are looking forward to your visit.


Dear visitors, our show caves are opened again from May 15, 2021 under the following restrictions: visitors must wear a face mask, disinfect hands and keep the required distance from each other. Details are stated in official country regulations and legislature. The number of visitors per admission is reduced. Thanks for understanding. We wish you a pleasant visit!

Cave visit with small children

Dear visitors, due to increased visitation of parents with very small children (circa up to 3 - 4 years of age), we would like to kindly ask you to have a rucksack baby carrier with you for visiting the more demanding caves in given time. This recommendation concerns all caves but the most concerned are the following ones: Demänovská Cave of Liberty, Belianska Cave, Dobšinská Ice Cave, Demänovská Ice Cave, Harmanecká Cave. We also ask you to consider visiting the cave with your crying child, which could disturb the other visitors. Thank you for understanding and we wish you a nice experience.

Cave tour guides for download

Dear visitors, cave tour guides are available for download


Správa jeskyní České republikyInternational Year of Caves and KarstHabakukyZajo